It"s the dead of winter, and there"s no better time for a refreshing and relaxing cruise. Let the kids enjoy rock climbing, surfing, zip lining, ice skating and swimming while you savor crisp blue skies, warm sea mists and wine coolers on your balcony as you cuddle together and scan the white-caps for a glimpse of an acrobatic whale. A lush buffet dinner awaits you all in a couple of hours; until then, there are many options for fun on your personal vacation menu. Unfortunately, although a cruise ship may seem like a getaway from daily life and its stressors, potential dangers lurk in every passageway and on every promenade.


《公海上的不安全》(safe on the公海)一书的作者、迈阿密海上巡线律师查尔斯•利普肯(Charles Lipcon)说,人们认为游轮是一个安全的茧,因此会产生一种过度自信的感觉。他们的天线被关掉了。但是游轮就像一个大城市。你会让你15岁的孩子在凌晨2点独自绕着纽约市跑吗?据报道,每年都有数十起船只性侵事件发生,而且只有训练不足或不合格的巡线安全警卫是案件发生后的唯一调查人员

People assume that a cruise ship is a safe cocoon and get a sense of overconfidence,” says Charles Lipcon, a cruise-line maritime attorney in Miami and author of “Unsafe on the High Seas.” “Their ‘antennas’ get turned off. But a cruise ship is like a big city. Would you let your 15-year-old run around New York City alone at 2 a.m.?” Lipcon’s cases have included gang rapes of young girls and date-rape drug use. Reported sexual assaults on ships number in the dozens each year, and poorly trained or unqualified cruise-line security guards are often the only investigators after a crime has occurred.


"Passengers think they’re in the United States, but they’re in the country of the vessel’s flag and under that country’s laws,” Lipcon adds. The FBI does have jurisdiction over crimes upon American citizens “on the high seas,” but it often has no evidence to work with. Cruise-line personnel, Lipcon says, typically “make no effort to preserve the crime scene. They vacuum the room and steam-clean the sheets.” The result: Many perpetrators remain unidentified – and unprosecuted.


采取预防措施对于保持游轮安全至关重要 - 同时也要保持健康。 “但健康的旅行者都身处在物质过剩的环境,”加利福尼亚州北岭的注册营养师艾伦鲍斯菲尔德说。 “随时供应的自助餐有数百种食品 - 大多数都含有高脂肪,盐和糖。当然商家是好意,但是许多游客也会暴饮暴食。“

Taking precautions is important to stay safe on a cruise — but also to stay healthy. “But health-conscious travellers face an environment filled with excess,” says Ellen Bauersfeld, a registered dietitian in Northridge, California. “24/7 meals, hundreds of items on a buffet line — most of which are high in fat, salt and sugar. Even with good intentions, many fall prey to overeating.

“不健康的食物引发大脑化学成瘾的变化。”鲍尔斯费尔德补充道:”最近的研究揭示了糖在我们的大脑中产生的多巴胺峰值。多巴胺是一种让人感觉良好的激素,会影响我们身体中“奖励”感官,有点像药物。不幸的是,在我们吃东西时感觉很好,这就是医学博士David Kessler在他的书“暴饮暴食的结束”中所说的那样 - 我们想要越来越多。“此外,鲍尔斯费尔德警告说,”混合游轮上有丰富的特色饮品。它们不仅热量高,而且在喝了几杯酒之后,控制自己的冲动和做出好的食物选择变得更具挑战性。“

”Unhealthy foods trigger addictive changes in brain chemistry, Bauersfeld explains, adding: “Recent research has revealed the dopamine spike that sugar creates in our brains. Dopamine is a feel-good hormone that affects our reward/pleasure center a little like a drug. Unfortunately, it only feels good while we’re eating, which is why – as David Kessler, M.D., reported in his book, “The End of Overeating” — we want more and more and more.” Additionally, Bauersfeld warns, “Mixed speciality drinks are in abundance on cruise ships. Not only are they high in calories, but, after a few drinks, impulse control and making good food choices become more challenging.”

食物中毒和诺如病毒美国疾病控制中心(CDC)估计,食物中毒每年影响六分之一的美国人。 “食物中毒的症状包括发烧,腹痛,恶心,呕吐和腹泻,”Samia Boctor博士(他拥有美国热带医学和卫生学会的旅行者健康证书)说。 “如果旅行者食用受污染的食物或水或接触被粪便或呕吐物污染的表面,他们可能会感染沙门氏菌,志贺氏菌或大肠杆菌。诺如病毒需要特别提及。这些菌株引起严重的爆发,可以将旅行者送进往医院。“

The Centers for Disease Control (CDC) estimates that food poisoning affects about one in six Americans each year. “Symptoms of food poisoning include fever, abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting and diarrhea,” says Dr. Samia Boctor, who has a certification in travelers’ health from the American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. “If travelers consume contaminated food or water or touch surfaces contaminated by fecal material or vomitus, they can get infections with salmonella, shigella or E. coli. And norovirus needs special mention. These strains cause severe outbreaks that can send travellers to the hospital.”

据疾病预防控制中心称,游轮上超过90%的腹泻爆发是由诺如病毒引起的。 2014年,通过疾病预防控制中心的船舶卫生计划报告了9起诺罗病毒爆发。 “诺如病毒很容易传播,特别是在拥挤的环境中,”Boctor警告说,“即使是与生病的人分享的食物或使用过的餐具也会导致传染。”

According to the CDC, more than 90 percent of outbreaks of diarrhea on cruise ships are caused by norovirus. In 2014, nine norovirus outbreaks were reported through the CDC’s Vessel Sanitation Program. “Norovirus is easily spread, especially in crowded environments,” Boctor warns, “even by sharing food or eating utensils with someone who is ill.”



Mechanical difficulties and fires on cruise ships have made headlines; thousands of passengers have been stranded for hours or even days at sea, often without power to support effective refrigeration, food preparation or sewage disposal. Backed-up toilets and leaking human waste can easily spread infections such as E. coli or norovirus. “Because of multiple routes of transmission, it is difficult to contain outbreaks,” Boctor says.


To reduce the risk of infections, Boctor advises that “special attention should be taken while removing vomitus and fecal material; surfaces should be cleaned and disinfected, and cleaners should be wearing protective equipment including, gloves, masks and gowns.” Norovirus can be resistant to common disinfectants. The CDC recommends that cruise-ship passengers wash their hands with anti-bacterial soap after using the toilet and before eating or drinking, in order to prevent the spread of bacteria and viruses.



The ship’s infirmary may be staffed by an earnest health-care provider in a starched white coat, but there’s no guarantee that the “doctor” on duty is licensed to practice medicine in the United States — or anywhere at all.


“Historically, doctors were signed up to work for three to six months at a time, paid a salary and part of the proceeds of what was sold in the ships’ infirmaries,” attorney Lipcon says, “and they could be licensed anywhere, including in the country of the ship’s flag. The cruise line is not responsible for bad medical care as long as they hire a qualified physician.” Lipcon has even seen cases where the ship’s doctor didn’t have a license but was “just a graduate of a medical school in the Dominican Republic.”


我们都听说在户外涂抹防晒霜很重要,特别是在上午10点到下午3点的阳光充足的时间。加利福尼亚州比佛利山庄的Ramin Ram博士是美国皮肤病学会的研究员,他说:“紫外线是导致皮肤受损原因,而不是太阳的热量。不幸的是,即使在阴天和凉爽的日子里,你也会接触到紫外线。晒伤与黑色素瘤的风险增加有关,如果在早期阶段未被发现和治疗,这可能是致命的。“

We’ve all heard that it’s important to wear sunscreen outdoors, especially during the peak sunlight hours between 10 a.m. and 3 p.m. Dr. Ramin Ram of Beverly Hills, Calif., a fellow of the American Academy of Dermatology, says: “UV rays are what cause skin damage and burning, not the sun’s heat. Unfortunately, you’re exposed to UV rays even during cloudy and cooler days. Sunburns are associated with higher risks of melanoma, which can be fatal if not detected and treated in its early stages.”

潜入水池并不能保护您。 “尽管冷水或海水可以舒缓皮肤,”拉姆说,“它能够反射紫外线,甚至可以使皮肤接受的初始紫外线照射量增加一倍。当你在沙滩附近时会变得更糟,因为沙子也可能会反射紫外线,即使你在水下也是如此。“

Diving into the pool doesn’t protect you. “Although a cold pool or seawater may soothe the skin,” Ram says, “its ability to reflect the UV radiation can even double the initial amount of direct UV light your skin receives. It gets worse when you are near sandy beaches, since the sand also may reflect UV light, even while you are under the water.”


Ram suggests “aggressive and generous applications of water-resistant sunblock reapplied every two hours and after the skin gets wet.” Ram also recommends wearing clothing with SPF protection “while you are in the water, which may significantly decrease your exposure to the UV light.”


天空作美的时候,游轮可能会很愉快,但是当一艘船受到风暴袭击时,安静的海上航行很快就会变成一场噩梦。纽芬兰纪念大学(Memorial University of Newfoundland)教授、CruiseJunkie.com网站创始人罗斯凯文报道,风暴可能导致,包括船体面板分离、阳台栏杆被破坏、沉重的家具(如桌子和电视机)在船舱和更大的房间或甲板上被抛来抛去,从而增加了受伤的可能性。

Cruises may be pleasant when the weather cooperates, but a quiet sea voyage can quickly turn into a nightmare when a ship is battered by a storm. Ross Klein, a professor at the Memorial University of Newfoundland and publisher of the website CruiseJunkie.com, cites multiple reports of winds over 50 knots causing ships to buck and list. Damage reported includes separation of ship panels, destruction of balcony railings and tossing of heavy furniture such as tables and TV sets across cabins and larger rooms or decks, making injuries more likely.

恶劣的天气也会使乘客晕船有恶心,呕吐和头晕。 “如果你晕船,请在出行前咨询医生,了解预防症状的方法,”Boctor说。 “有非处方药和处方药可能对你有所帮助,但大多数可以让你昏昏欲睡,如果你喝酒,就不应该使用它们。”

Rough weather also can make passengers seasick, with nausea, vomiting and dizziness. “If you get seasick, talk to your doctor before your trip about ways to prevent symptoms,” Boctor says. “There are over-the-counter and prescription medicines that might help you, though most can make you sleepy and you shouldn’t use them if you’re drinking alcoho



Retreating to your bed is always an option if you’re under the weather. But uncomfortable mattresses are among the top five cruise complaints, Lipcon reports.

更糟糕的是,床上不受欢迎的客人,如臭虫,可能会毁了你的海上旅行 - 并且可以跟着你回家。臭虫是昆虫寄生虫,可以长到四分之一英寸长,白天在床垫接缝,床架和床头板的睡眠区附近隐藏,甚至在干净和豪华的环境中也能找到。 “臭虫不会传播疾病,”Boctor说,“但是他们的叮咬会导致不适,刺激和过敏反应,导致瘙痒,过度刮伤和皮肤感染 - 并导致睡眠中断。”

Even worse, unwanted guests in your bed, such as bedbugs, can ruin your trip at sea — and can follow you home. Bedbugs are insect parasites that can grow to a quarter-inch long, hide during the day near sleeping areas in mattress seams, bedframes and headboards, and are found even in clean and luxurious environments. “Bedbugs don’t transmit disease,” Boctor says, “but their bites can cause discomfort, irritation and allergic reactions that can lead to itching, excessive scratching and skin infections — and disrupted sleep.”



Allergic reactions can also be triggered by dust and mold. Mold micro-organisms and fungi grow in moist environments and on wet surfaces. According to the Environmental Protection Agency, molds produce substances that can commonly cause allergic reactions, as well as irritants and toxins. Allergy symptoms include sneezing, runny nose, red eyes, skin rashes and asthma attacks. Allergic individuals may also react to dust mites and to fabrics and other components of pillows and mattresses. Avoiding these allergens is the best way to prevent symptoms, but antihistamines and prescription medications may reduce symptoms if environmental controls are not possible.

心理健康的挑战游轮充满了社交活动,但不是每个人都感觉像快乐的聚会。临床心理学家安东尼约翰逊说:“即使在游轮的狭窄空间内,有人依旧跟朋友保持联系并享受乐趣,但有些乘客可能仍会感到孤独,孤独和心灰意冷。” “我们不断比较自己。一个心理抑郁的人可能会总结道,“我不能和人说话。我甚至不能玩得开心。我不喜欢别人。我无能为力。为什么继续?"“抑郁等心理健康挑战可能因船上的孤独和社会隔离以及缺乏咨询资源和社会安全网而加剧.据克莱恩·克鲁伊塞junkie.com报道,2014年有22名游船乘客落水,其中包括一些据称或被目击到的自杀事件。

Cruises are filled with social activities in a party atmosphere, but not everyone feels like the life of the party. “Even in the confined space of a cruise ship, surrounded by people determined to connect and have fun, a passenger might still feel lonely, isolated and downhearted,” says clinical psychologist Anthony Johnson. “We constantly compare ourselves. A downhearted person might conclude, ‘I can"t talk to people. I can"t even have fun. I"m not like others. I can"t do anything right. Why go on?’" Mental health challenges such as depression can be exacerbated by loneliness and social isolation aboard ship, as well as by the absence of counselling resources and social safety nets. Klein s CruiseJunkie.com reports that 22 cruise-ship passengers went overboard in 2014 including a number of alleged or observed suicides.



As an experienced maritime attorney, Lipcon has dealt with many cases of accidents, sexual assaults, missing people and infections, but he acknowledges that 12 million people take cruises every year and that, fortunately, most have a wonderful time.

“Cruise Junkie”Klein表示赞同,建议谨慎的旅客“将游轮当作任何大城市。不要假设安全。经常洗手,尽可能避免未煮熟的食物,并注意饮用水。如果你想要完全安全,可以使用瓶装水。“

“Cruise Junkie” Klein concurs, advising cautious travellers to “treat a cruise ship as any large city. Don"t assume safety and security. Wash your hands frequently, avoid uncooked and undercooked foods if possible, and take caution with drinking water. Use bottled water if you want to be entirely safe.”

关于安全游船的其他提示,克莱因说,携带你的所有处方药,足够整个邮轮假期使用的。 “此外,如果出现需要医疗干预的紧急情况,请准备好提供病史。随身携带您的医疗保险信息;购买旅行医疗保险是一个好主意。“

Other tips for a safe cruise, Klein says, include having all of your prescription medications with you, and enough for the entire cruise. “Also, be prepared to give a medical history in case there is [an] emergency requiring medical intervention. Have your medical insurance information with you; buying trip medical insurance is a good idea.“

带上防晒霜并使用它,不要忘记喝大量的水......并避免过度放纵酒精,脂肪和高热量食物; 这样防止变胖,据统计在一周的邮轮巡航假期中,乘客平均增加7磅或更多。 “Lipcon补充道:”请在登上邮轮时, 也需要有一些安全常识。“

Bring sun block and use it, and don"t forget to drink lots of water … and avoid overindulgence of alcohol, and of fatty and high-caloric foods; the average passenger gains seven pounds or more on a one-week cruise. ”The best advice for sea travellers, Lipcon adds: “Don’t leave your common sense behind when you board.”

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